Full-field background investigations required for the highest security clearances and special access permissions are costly and take as long as a year to complete. The time required for applicant adjudication, particularly among civilian defense contractors, is causing concern in the US government. That concern is expressed in a US Government Accountability Office report to its Congressional requesters. The report is titled DoD Personnel Clearances - Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process. The report was submitted in September 2006.